Tuesday, February 11, 2014

73 sect narration – in the light of Quran, Hadees and facts

73 sect narration – in the light of Quran, Hadees and facts

By: Khurshid imam

A.      Introduction
E.       Wh is firqa / sect?
H.      Conclusion

Whenever anyone talks about unity of Muslims - people bring the argument “unity is not possible as hadis attributed to Prophet tells us that Muslims will be divided into 73 sects; out of which only one sect will enter paradise and 72 sects will enter hell fire. So you need to know and choose the saved sect and unite with them only”. Then the struggle to find “saved sect” starts and filthy game of declaring “others” as deviated begins.

A Salafi will tell that Salafism is the saved sect and other sects are doomed to enter hell. Jamatul Muslameen is one out of numerous sub sects of Salafism; it also claims that people adhering to jamatul muslameen are saved and other Salafis are deviated.
Similarly a barelvi will tell that only they are from Ahlul Sunnah and hence saved sect; rest others are bound to enter hell. The extreme situation is that even Qadianis claim that only they are saved sect people and rest others are bound to hell.

Sectarian Islam is dominating virtual world / internet and islamic websites devote a significant portion of material in refuting other sects. Muslims are probably only religious community whose websites has one important section – “deviated sects”; wherein they mention who are deviated sects and why these deviated sects will enter hell. No wonder the very altitude of sectarian Muslims is negative; to find fault in others; mock others; humiliate others – which obviously leads to intolerance. A very important point to be noted is that: these muslims assume that all non-Muslims will enter hell fire+72 sects out of 73 sects of Muslims will also enter hell. In general; every muslim present today will go to hellfire as per other sects.

No gathering / lecture / sermon on the topic "unity among muslims" is complete without quoting this hadis. “Pious” and “emotional” youngsters devote great amount of time in proving who is from saved sect and who is not.

All this discord / fitna/ literary-war is done in the name following narration:

The narrator of the hadees says that he heard from Ahmad ibn Hambal and Muhammad ibn yahya, they say that they heard from Abu Mgheera. He says that he heard from safwaan. Amr ibn Usman says that he heard from baqiya, who heard from safwan. The author heard from azhar ibn abdullah Al-hazari who heard from al-hawzani who heard from muawia bin Abu sufian who says that he heard from Prophet that 

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu `Amir `Abdullah bin Luhay said; "We performed Hajj with Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan. When we arrived at Makkah, he stood up after praying Dhuhr and said; ‘The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said; ‘The People of the Two Scriptures divided into seventy-two sects. This Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects, all in the Fire except one, that is, the Jama`ah. Some of my Ummah will be guided by desire, like one who is infected by rabies; no vein or joint will be saved from these desires.''"

1. This hadis is not present in books Sahih Muslim and Sahih bukhari which are said to contain only those ahadis that pass very rigorous standards.

2. This hadis was also narrated by Abu Dawood (2/503), Ahmad (4/102) and al-Haakim (1/128) among others, with similar wording but with the following addition;
"Seventy two in hell fire and one in the Jannah: that is the 'Jama`ah." Let us see Abu dawood version of this hadis:

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْمُغِيرَةِ، حَدَّثَنَا صَفْوَانُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عُثْمَانَ، حَدَّثَنَا بَقِيَّةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي صَفْوَانُ، نَحْوَهُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَزْهَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَرَازِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي عَامِرٍ الْهَوْزَنِيِّ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، أَنَّهُ قَامَ فِينَا فَقَالَ أَلاَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَامَ فِينَا فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَلاَ إِنَّ مَنْ قَبْلَكُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ افْتَرَقُوا عَلَى ثِنْتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً وَإِنَّ هَذِهِ الْمِلَّةَ سَتَفْتَرِقُ عَلَى ثَلاَثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ ثِنْتَانِ وَسَبْعُونَ فِي النَّارِ وَوَاحِدَةٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَهِيَ الْجَمَاعَةُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ زَادَ ابْنُ يَحْيَى وَعَمْرٌو فِي حَدِيثَيْهِمَا ‏"‏ وَإِنَّهُ سَيَخْرُجُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أَقْوَامٌ تَجَارَى بِهِمْ تِلْكَ الأَهْوَاءُ كَمَا يَتَجَارَى الْكَلْبُ لِصَاحِبِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ عَمْرٌو ‏"‏ الْكَلْبُ بِصَاحِبِهِ لاَ يَبْقَى مِنْهُ عِرْقٌ وَلاَ مَفْصِلٌ إِلاَّ 

Mu’awiyah b. Abi Sufiyan stood among us and said: Beware! The Apostle of ALLA H (SAWS) stood among us and said: Beware! The people of the Book before were split up into seventy-two sects, and this community will be split into seventy three: seventy-two of them will go to Hell and one of them will go to Paradise, and it is the majority group.

Ibn Yahya and ‘Amr added in their version : “ There will appear among my community people who will be dominated by desires like rabies which penetrates its patient”, ‘Amr’s version has: “penetrates its patient. There remains no vein and no joint but it penetrates it.” [Sunan Abi Dawud 4597; In-book reference: Book 42, Hadis 2; English translation: Book 41, Hadis 4580]  http://www.sunnah.com/abudawud/42/2

3. As per the narration only one FIRQA / SECT will enter paradise; rest will be thrown to hell. Important point to be noted is that this hadis is used by each firqa (sect) to prove that only it will enter paradise and others will enter hell fire.

Some great scholars, such as ash-Shawkani and al-Kawthari said that this addition - Seventy two in hell fire and one in the Jannah: that is the 'Jama`ah.-  is weak. 

A. Ibn Hazm said that this addition - Seventy two in hell fire and one in the Jannah: that is the 'Jama`ah - was fabricated.

B. Ibn al-Wazeer rejects the hadis on the grounds of its meaning rather than its isnaad (chain of narration).
However most of scholars–Adh-Dhahabi, Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Haakim etc.-don’t find any problem with this hadis.

C. Siddeeq Hasan Khan suggested that the extra wording in the hadis, "all of them are doomed except one" or "seventy two are in the Fire", was a da'eef (weak) addition. He transmitted this opinion from his Shaykh, ash-Shawkaani, who narrated it from Ibn al-Wazeer and Ibn Hazm before him. He approved the opinion of one who said, "This addition is one of the fabrications of the atheists because it puts people off Islam and scares them away from embracing it." (Yaqadhaat ul al-I'tibaar, p.206)

D. According to Mottahedeh- (a 10th-century geographer), Fakhruddin Razi (d. 1209) reports that some have questioned the authenticity of this tradition, saying that if by 72 they mean the fundamentals of religious belief (usul), then they do not reach this number and if they mean the practices (furu), then the number passes this number by several multiples. http://www.dawn.com/news/1035023/the-mystery-of-73-sects

To summarize: There have been scholars who have casted serious doubt about the authenticity of this narration based on its meaning.

If a claim is made somewhere then we should check whether the claim is true or not.

1.      Far more than 73 sects among Muslims:

If we understand this hadis the way people do - there will be 73 sects among Muslims - then one will admit that this narration contradicts with the fact. Why?
You are talking about only 73 sects that will be formed among muslims; while:

Ø  hundreds of sects (i.e more than 73) came into existence in the past. !!
Ø  hundreds (i.e more than 73) of them disappeared. !!
Ø  hundreds (i.e more than 73) new sects were formed later on. !!
Ø  and God knows how many new sects will be formed in future. !!
Ø   So where is question of 73 sects?

Today we have hundreds of sects and Allah knows before qiyamah how many more new sects will come into existence. Does not this FACT contradict with 73 sect narration?

For example - Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani wrote about the contemporary 73 sects in the islam in his book Ghunyatut Taalibeen. When he wrote this book? More than 900 years back!! So 900 years back there were 73 sects AT LEAST!!! We know several of them ceased to exist and many have come into existence afterwards. Again – where is the question of ONLY 73 sect – if we are right in our understanding of what sect is.

Apart from that; one need to know that there have been more than hundreds of sects within Shia itself. Many of them have disappeared. For example - look at the list of sects within shia that has disappeared: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_extinct_Shi'a_sects

SALAFISM is a sect that initially claimed to be the ONLY saved sect. Gradually several new sects were formed out of salafism and each one claiming itself to be on true path. Internet, YouTube is flooded with materials of salafis refuting each others, declaring other’s scholars deviated; producing list of other salafi scholars who are not real salafi. Someone is proving that salafis themselves are divided into 164 sects. Check this: http://www.cifiaonline.com/salafigroupsinworld.htm

So any honest and logical person will understand the danger and absurdity of sectarian altitude.

2.      Only 72 sects among ahle kitab?

Also this hadis speaks about 72 sects among ahle kitab. I am not sure how many sects of Jews and Christians were there at the time of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), but today there are thousands of sects within Christianity itself.

a)      Wiki says: “This is not a complete list, but aims to provide a comprehensible overview of the diversity among denominations of Christianity. As there are reported to be approximately 41,000 Christian denominations.

c)      “Currently, there are over 1,200 Christian denominations in North America.” J. Gordon Melton, Ed, "The Encyclopedia of American Religions," 6th edition, Gale Group, (2009)

e)      According to David Barrett et al, editors of the "World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions - AD 30 to 2200," there are 34,000 separate Christian groups in the world. David B. Barrett, et al., "World Christian Encyclopedia : A Comparative Survey of Churches and Religions in the Modern World," Oxford University Press, 2 volume set, (2001)

Jews and Christians were divided into 72 sects precisely – is debatable.

Does Quran speak anything about making SECT?                             Answer: YES
What Quran says about making firqa or being part of any firqa?       Answer: Quran condemns in strongest possible word so much so that it tells Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and reader of Quran NOT to have anything with these people.

Unfortunately most of English and Urdu translation of Quran dilutes the meaning of ayah about FIRQA by using very simple words; thus readers are deprived of the intended meaning. We will use word FIRQA as it is from Arabic word so that user understand the gravity of issue.

1.    Do not be part of firqa / sect – command of God

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمإِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ ْ      As for those who make FIRQA (or are part of any firqa) in their religion and break up into groups, YOU have no part in them in the least; their affair is with Allah: he will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did”-Quran 6:159

God is condemning making FIRQA; but muslims are justifying existence and validity of their firqa because as per 73 sect narration one of the FIRQA will go to jannah!! Is not this clear cut contradiction?

2.      Quran strongly condemns sect / firqa

Almighty God has condemned in strongest possible words making of any firqa / sect. I wonder how any Muslim – who is well aware of evil nature of firqaparasti / sectarianism – can justify making or being part of any firqa/sect? Not only this – but people extend this rebellion against Allah by loudly claiming that only their firqa / sect people will enter paradise and rest of Muslims will be doomed to hell fire.

وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا ۗ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

“And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allâh (i.e. this Qur'ân), and don’t make FIRQA (by dividing yourself), and remember Allâh's Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren, and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allâh makes His Ayât (signs) clear to you, that you may be guided.”-Quran 3:103

So many important guidance from the above ayah: 
a)      وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ  Hold strongly rope of Allah; This rope of Allah is nothing but Quran one whose one end God is there and on other end readers of Quran. This ayah indicates that if we will strongly hold Quran then we can avoid firqaparasti or Sectarianism. It is a FACT that most important reason for firqaparasti or Sectarianism is due to difference in understanding of Hadis. One will hardly find Quran a reason for firqaparasti. Today exactly same thing is happening; each sect stresses on its own set of hadis. If each sect PRACTICALLY believes in Quran as final authority then these sects will vanish and pure deen will prevail.

So what will happen if one will not strongly hold Quran? One reason – that is given through this ayah is that it will lead to division of ummah. Most of firqa/sects and sectarian debates are based on hadis and not on Quran. If you write different reasons of fight among Muslims then you will find that most of it has to do with hadis rather Quran. Upholding Quran as the top book PRACTICALLY will never lead to firqaparasti / sectarianism.

b)      جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُو Quran says BE UNITED and don’t get into FIRQA / SECT: i.e. don’t get divided. Unity is opposite of division. So if you expect unity among believers then you HAVE to break the shackle of sect; you have to speak against sectarian approach.

c)      .. أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا enmity that existed between hearts of  people (companions of prophets before they entered islam) were removed when Allah JOINED their hearts through Islam. When Islam comes into life then hearts of believers will be joined together. If hearts are divided, one group is calling other group as deviated, fighting with them, indulging in character assassination, abusing, attacking them with fatwas of kufr, shirk, deviation …. Then certainly this does not imply that hearts are joined and they are brothers of each other.

3.      Abandoning Quran definitely leads to division and deviation and ultimately sect

This is why Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) will complain on the Day of Judgment.
وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا

Messenger will say – “truly! My people had abandoned Quran”-Quran 25:30

4.      Those who are part of firqa/sect will have Azaab (torment) of Allah

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُوا وَاخْتَلَفُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُالْبَيِّنَاتُ ۚ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

“And be not as those who got into FIRQA (who divided) and differed among themselves after the clear proofs had come to them. It is they for whom there is an awful torment.”-Quran 3:105

How can any knowledgeable person glorify any firqa or be part of any firqa / sect when Allah is promising punishment and azaab for those who make firqa or are part of firqa even after receiving clear instructions in the form of Quran? Punishment and wrath of God waits for sectarian Muslims.

5.      Making or being part of firqa / sect is quality of mushrik

مُنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَلَا تَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا ۖ كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ

"Turn you back in repentance to Him, and fear Him: establish regular prayers, and be not you among mushrekeen. Of those who split up their religion (made firqa or became part of firqa) and became sects, each sect rejoicing in that which is with it."-Quran 30: 31-32

Here Allah says that making firqa or being part of any firqa is quality of mushrik (those who associate partner with Allah). Those who are into any sect are displaying bad qualities of mushrik. Allah has not commanded to become firqa then which god these people are obeying by indulging in sectarianism / firqaparasti?

6.      Guidance from Prophet Aron and Prophet Moses (Peace be upon them) on firqa:

Prophet Moses was away for some time, when he returns back he finds his people committing shirk. Prophet Moses ask them why they broke promise of not committing shirk. Quran 20:86-89.
Prophet Moses asked Prophet Aron why he did not stop his people from committing shirk; he asked whether Aron has failed to keep up the command of Moses – of not letting his people do shirk. Quran 20:92-93
Read carefully how Prophet Aaron responds in Ayah 94.

قَالَ يَا ابْنَ أُمَّ لَا تَأْخُذْ بِلِحْيَتِي وَلَا بِرَأْسِي ۖ إِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَن تَقُولَ فَرَّقْتَ بَيْنَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَلَمْ تَرْقُبْ قَوْلِي
        “(Aaron) replied: "O son of my mother! Seize (me) not by my beard nor by (the hair of) my head! Truly I feared lest you should say, You have MADE FIRQA i.e. caused a division among the children of Israel, and you did not respect my word!”-Quran 20:94

Did you read carefully this ayah of Quran? Prophet Aaron says that he feared that his people will get into sects / firqa / be divided in various groups if he tries to stop them more. So we are seeing here that a Prophet of his time considered firqaprasti / sectarianism so grave matter that he did not let it happen even at a greater cost. Of course he knew well that when Prophet Moses will be back then Moses will ask people to stop shirk, but temporarily Prophet Aron could not prevent shirk by his people because he feared that people will fall into sect / firqa (“Why this would have happened” – we are skipping it here for the sake of brevity of article.)

See the approach of a prophet towards sect / firqa and see our approach. We proudly claim that we are from FIRQA E NAJIA i.e. SAVED SECT!!!

Lot can be said about firqa in the light of Quran but we will cut short. If muslims are part of any firqa / sect then certainly its blatant rebellion against commands of Allah.
Will you prefer your group of scholars to Allah?
Will you prefer any other book to Quran?

E.     Your last doubt – what can be dubbed as sect / firqa?

Many of you will be having a doubt – but what exactly is a firqa? Any group can be called firqa?
Of course political or social group that work for welfare of Muslims do not come under category of firqa. But theological group that:
·         Justifies and validates existence of different sects in Islam;
·         Claims that only it is on the right path; rest other groups are bound to enter hell fire.
Certainly this is firqa. Want proof?

a. Sect is formed after rivalry among knowledgeable people:

Quran projects the true picture; that FIRQA / division in Islam is done by people AFTER they get knowledge and indulge in rivalry. How true are words of Allah!!
وَمَا تَفَرَّقُوا إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ

“And they did not become FIRQA (sect) until after the knowledge came unto them, through rivalry among themselves;…”-Quran 42:14

We see most important reason for flourishing of firqa as rivalry among scholars / those who claim they have knowledge. Every group is presenting his proof against others and proving how others are deviated and hell bound. Allah has indicated this same reason in Quran 42:14. A quick glance at the origin of all sects of Islam will attest to the fact mentioned in this ayah.

Similarly – Allah says;
“And be not as those got into FIRQA (who divided) and differed among themselves after the clear proofs had come to them. It is they for whom there is an awful torment.”-Quran 3:105

Imagine! If top scholars of all sects today declare that we should not fight in the name of sect; we should not hate each other; we should not indulge in blame game; we should not declare others as kafir/deviated AND they all practically do this– then don’t you think that sects will get slow death and pure Islam will prevail? Is it the ego of top most scholars that is preventing collapse of sects?

b. Each sect rejoices in what is with it:

Each sect lives in its own dreamland. Each sect is rest assured that it is saved sect and others are bound to enter hell.
وَإِنَّ هَـٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاتَّقُونِ
فَتَقَطَّعُوا أَمْرَهُم بَيْنَهُمْ زُبُرًا كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ
“….But they (men) have broken their religion among them into sects, each group rejoicing in what is with it.”- Quran 23:52-53

Making sect is a quality of mushrik. Allah did not command to make sect. Each sect rejoices with its understanding of deen; feels happy that it is saved sect.

".. and be not you among mushrekeen. Of those who split up their religion (made firqa or became part of firqa) and became sects, each sect rejoicing in that which is with it." -Quran 30: 31-32

Quran is the only uncorrupted book from Allah. Apart from Quran no other book can be said to be 100% uncorrupted and authentic.

Quran gives the broad principle that those who:
- had faith and did good deed will enter paradise; Refer Quran 4:57; 4:122; 22:23; 22:56; 29:58 and many more.
- became kafir, zalim, fasiq etc will enter hell. Refer Quran 5:10; 57:19 and many more.
Allah is not unjust. Whole life of a person will be taken into account.
 Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.” Quran 99:7-8
Hadis – many a times – provide situational implementation of those principles. If we don’t try to understand hadis within principles of Quran then it will create havoc and result in so many contradictory beliefs. There are narrations attributed to prophet where he said:

#1 “This community of mine is a community blessed with mercy. It is not punished in the Hereafter. Instead, it is punished in this world with strife, instability, and bloodshed.” Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Abî Dâwûd, and Mustadrak al-Hâkim

#2 “I swear by Him in whose hand is Muhammad’s soul. Indeed, I hope that you will be half the population of Paradise.” Sahîh al-Bukhârî Volume 4, Book 55, Hadis 567

#3 "On the Day of Resurrection I will intercede and say, "O my Lord! Admit into Paradise (even) those who have faith equal to a mustard seed in their hearts." Such people will enter Paradise, and then I will say, 'O (Allah) admit into Paradise (even) those who have the least amount of faith in their hearts.” Sahi Bukhari Volume 9, Book 93, Hadis 600

#4 anyone who had said La Ilaha Illahllaah will enter paradise ON THE DAY OF RESURRECTION. Sahi Bukhari Volume 9, Book 93, Hadis 601

Concluding from different narrations
·          Muslims will not be punished in the hereafter; No Muslim in hell.
·          Half population of paradise will be Ummate mohammadi.
·          72 sects of Muslims will be in hell. Only 1 in paradise. Most of Muslims in hell.
·          Anyone who had faith equal to a mustard seed or even lesser will not enter hell but will be given paradise. No Muslim in hell.
·          Whoever just said La Ilaha Illahllaah will enter paradise. No Muslim in hell.

If you don’t try to understand above narrations using the yardstick of Quran then you will have weird beliefs. If just by saying Islamic creed OR just by having less than mustard size emaan we will be saved from hell and get paradise then what is the use of following Quran; offering salah, fasting, hajj, abstaining from sins …..?

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿٦٢﴾
Those who believe (in the Qur'an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. Quran 2:62

There is one more dimension to understand this hadis. Text of hadis is very different from Quran. Separate article is required for this topic. Hadis are not to be taken literary always; otherwise islam will look weird. For example look at following hadis:

1. 'Whoever reads the Qur'an and memorizes it, Allah will admit him to Paradise and allow him to intercede for ten of his family members who all deserved to enter Hell. Sahih Bukhari; English reference: Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 216; Arabic reference: Book 1, Hadith 221.

2. One who memorizes 99 names of allah will enter jannah . Sahih Bukhari Vol 9; Bk. 93: Hadis 489.

3. One whose 3 children die before reaching puberty- that person will be admitted to paradise. Reference: Sunan an-Nasa'i 1873; In-book reference : Book 21, Hadith 56; English translation: Vol. 3, Book 21, Hadith 1874.                                                                            

4. Ones love for surah ikhlas will admit a person to paradise. At-Trimdhi; Sunnah.com reference: Book 9, Hadith 23; Arabic/English book reference: Book 9, Hadith 1013.

5. A slave (of Allah) may utter a word (carelessly) which displeases Allah without thinking of its gravity and because of that he will be thrown into the Hell-Fire."  Reference: Sahih al-Bukhari 6478;  In-book reference: Book 81, Hadith 67; USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 8, Book 76, Hadith 485.

6. Whoever calls the Adhan for twelve years, he will be guaranteed Paradise. Reference : Sunan Ibn Majah 728; In-book reference: Book 3, Hadith 23; English translation: Vol. 1, Book 3, Hadith 728.

7. If anyone guarantees me that he will not beg from people, I will guarantee him Paradise. Reference: Sunan Abi Dawud 1643; In-book reference: Book 9, Hadith 88; English translation: Book 9, Hadith 1639.

8. Allah's Apostle said, "Allah has forbidden the (Hell) fire for those who say, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah' for Allah's sake only." Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1; Book 8, hadis 417.

9. Narrated Abu `Abs: (who is `Abdur−Rahman bin Jabir) Allah's Apostle said," Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah's Cause will not be touched by the (Hell) fire." Sahih Bukhari, Vol 4; Book 52, hadis 66.

10. Those who have had faith equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed to be taken out from Hell. Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, book 2, hadis 21.

11. When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to the Hell−fire. Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1; Book. 2, hadis 30.

12. Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "Whoever said "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a barley grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of a wheat grain will be taken out of Hell. And whoever said, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and has in his heart good (faith) equal to the weight of an atom will be taken out of Hell." Sahih Bukhari Vol 1; Book. 2, hadis 42.

13. Narrated Sa`d: I heard the Prophet saying, "Whoever claims to be the son of a person other than his father, and he knows that person is not his father, then Paradise will be forbidden for him." Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8; Book. 80, hadis 758.

If you understand these hadis literally in isolation without taking into account what principle Quran has given then you have to agree that we don’t need to offer salah, do fasting, give zakat, have good ikhlaq, abstain from zina-gheebat etc because as per these ahadis a person will be admitted to paradise if he just – memorizes 99 names of Allah OR he just memorizes Quran OR he just say that only Allah is worthy to be worshipped OR he gives adhaan for 12 years OR he just doesn’t beg…….and so on.

Similarly when promise is made for hell fire for some kind of people in ahadis then we need to understand those ahadis under principles of Quran else we will be making our own mockery.

Will you not desist from firqaparasti / sectarianism?

Will you claim to be follower of Islam OR follower of hanafi-shafi-maliki-hambali madhab; sunni; shia; Salafi, deobandi, barelwi, Ahle hadees?

Are you a Muslim only OR AhleSunnahWalJamaat Muslim; sunni Muslim; shia Muslim; deobandi Muslim; barelvi Muslim; salafi Muslim; hanafi Muslim; madkhali salafi Muslim..?

Will you pray for paradise and seek refuge from hell OR you will proudly declare that you will enter paradise and others will enter hell fire?

1. One of the main reasons that prevent unity among Muslims is 73 sect narrations. People justify validity of their sects based on this narration. Scholars tell followers that their sect is saved sect.

2. They say that there will be 73 sects in Islam. Fact is hundreds of sects came into existence in past; hundreds have disappeared; hundreds new have formed. So 73 sect narration contradicts with fact.

3. 73 sect narration has been criticized by some of scholars. They have casted doubt whether Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) would have said so.

4. Muslims claim that one of the 73 sects will enter paradise and rest will enter hell. Quran has time and again condemned making ANY FIRQA. Sect is opposite to command of Quran.

5. Quran has commanded believers NOT to get into any sect. When Allah is telling us to be Muslim ALONE then no need for us to add any prefix or suffix to it. No matter how great a scholar is – his words will not be taken against word of Allah.

6. One of the reasons of existence of sect is rivalry among scholars. Beware of scholar if he is driving towards ANY sect; hold strongly natural religion Islam. There is no sect in Islam.

7. Allah has indicated in Quran that if you hold strongly Quran then sect can be avoided. And Prophet will complain to Allah on the Day of Judgment that his people had abandoned Quran.

8. God has named us as muslim (Quran 22:78) – in Arabic language – so call yourself muslim only without any prefix/suffix. God has chosen islam as deen (Quran 5:3) so follow islam only.

·         If you don’t agree with the article then instead of giving any fatwa of kufr / shirk / deviation – leave it to Allah to judge.
·         For any feedback / criticism kindly mail serviceforhumanity@gmail.com


  1. Very informative. Thanks for writing it beautifully with proper begining and end. Keep writing and enlightening us. May Allah bless you.


  2. The Ammani (Sulah-e-Kulli) Grade (1) Group claims that oral recitation of Shahadah (Kalima Tayyiba) is sufficient for a person to be a Muslim. The actual beliefs of deviant sects do not matter to them. They misquote certain Quranic verses, Ahadith and statements of some scholars in this context and emphasize that everyone from all 73 Sects and their countless sub groups are Muslims. No one can call their beliefs as deviant or Kufr. They maintain cozy relationships with people belonging to all sects and call them brothers in faith, in spite of the fact that the followers of these sects profess Kufria/blasphemous beliefs openly. When someone draws their attention towards this attitude and reminds them about their responsibility to spread Sahih Iman in the world, they call him takfeeri.

    This Sulah-e-Kulli group, in reality, are challenging the commandments of Allah, His Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and all our Imams of the past 1400 years who have elaborated what is Kufr, Shirk and what is Iman. The definitions used by our Ulema in this context clearly specify that even if you recite Kalima Tayyiba, and claim yourself as Muslim, there are certain beliefs/actions on your part that take you out of the fold of Islam. These are as follows.

    (1) A person who denies Islam and its testimony (Kalima Tayyiba) or a person who considers belief in Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is optional, not compulsory for salvation in Hereafter is 'Infidel' (Kafir).

    (2) A person who associates divinity (Uloohiyat) with anything other than Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) and considers it worshipable, is a Polytheist (Mushrik).

    (3) A person who recites Kalima Tayyiba and claims himself to be Muslim but denies Islam in his heart, is known as 'Hypocrite' (Munafiq).

    (4) A Muslim who leaves the fold of Islam is known as 'Apostate' (Murtad).

    (5) There are many types of 'Hypocrite Apostates' (Murtad Munafiq), as follows.

    (i) A person who recites Kalima Tayyiba, claims himself to be Muslim, but at the same time disrespects, and does blasphemy of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Sahabah, Imams and Awliya Allah is known as Hypocrite Apostate (Murtad Munafiq).

    (ii) A person who recites Kalima Tayyiba and claims himself to be Muslim but believes his God to have human-like physical body, two eyes, two hands, two legs, who is sitting over the skies, is known as 'Hypocrite Apostate (Murtad Munafiq).

    (iii) A person who recites Kalima Tayyiba, claims himself to be Muslim, but at the same time visits Hindu temples, Sikh Gurduwaras, Jew Synagogues, Christian Churches and participates in their functions and worship, is known as 'Hypocrite Apostate' (Murtad Munafiq).

    (iv) It is in Quran - لَا تَعْتَذِرُوا قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ [ Make no excuse; you have done Kufr after your Iman.] (At-Tauba - 66).

    (v) It is in Hadith - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: “Jews got divided into seventy one groups and Christians got divided into seventy two groups and my nation will get divided into seventy three groups. All the groups will be in Hell except one. They asked: “Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) which one is it? He replied: “Those who will remain on the path on which I and my companions are today.” (Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Tirmidhi, Ahmad).

    All Ahle Sunnah Ulema, including Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi, Maulvi Abdul Haq, Shah Waliullah, Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui, Shaikh Ahmed Ridha Khan of Bareli, Shaikh Imdadullah Mohajir Makki, Shaikh Anwaarullah Farooqi and others (رحمة الله عليهم اجمعين) are unanimous on the above issue.


    The Ammani (Sulah-e-Kulli) Grade (2) are the followers of Perennialism. They not only claim all 73 Sects and their sub groups are Muslims, but also believe all religions are truthful. They claim everyone who believes in the existence of one God, irrespective of his actual perception and understanding, is a believer on par with Muslims. With this understanding they declare Christians, Jews, Buddhists, and others as believers, just like Muslims. Perennial philosophy has its roots in Platonism which was condemned by Imam Ghazali during his lifetime (1058-1111). Read more.

    It is important to note that a person who is suffering from Sulah-e-Kulli disease, starts claiming all 72 deviant Sects and their uncountable sub groups are Muslims irrespective of their open kufria/Blasphemous beliefs. If his disease is not treated in time, he starts claiming that there is a difference between people of the book and non believers as people of the book (Ahle Kitab) believe in the existence of one God. When his disease reaches to a fatal, irrecoverable stage, he claims that Christians and Jews are 'believers' just like Muslims because they also believe in one God. At this stage he starts claiming that belief in Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is optional, not necessary for salvation in Hereafter. Then he imposes 'the belief in one God theory' on other religions and starts claiming that Buddhists, Hindus and others are also believers because they also believe in one ultimate reality/God. This is exactly what happened in the case of Ammani sect.

    It is in Hadith - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - Among Muslims, there will be some people (scholars and their followers) who will lead people according to principles other than Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Sunnah. There will be some others who will invite people to the doors of Hell and whoever accepts their invitation, he will be thrown in Hell. These misguided people will be from within the Muslim community. Muslims should stick to their chief (who is on the right path of Islam). If they do not find a Chief or the righteous group, they should "Keep away from all those different sects (Ammanis, Salafis, Deobandis, Shias, etc.), even if they had to bite (eat) the root of a tree, till they meet Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی). Part of Hadith. (Bukhari Book # 56, Hadith # 803 and Muslim Book # 20, Hadith # 4553).

    It is in Quran - وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا [And whoever opposes the Apostle of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) after the path of guidance has become clear to him, and follows the path other than that of the (true) believers, We shall keep him in the same (state of disorientation) he has (himself) turned to, and shall (eventually) cast him into Hellfire and that is an evil dwelling.] (An-Nisa - 115) Read more on this link. http://www.cifiaonline.com/ammanisulahkullisect.htm